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实用GPS测量数据处理教程.doc

2013-08-23 17:48:49 来源: 测绘论坛
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  实用GPS测量数据处理教程

概述              1

第一章         GPS定位原理概述...................................................................................................................... 1

1               GPS的组成.......................................................................................................................... 1

2               GPS信号.............................................................................................................................. 1

3               SPSPPS........................................................................................................................... 2

4               GPS定位的常用观测值.................................................................................................... 3

5               GPS定位的误差源............................................................................................................. 3

6               GPS定位方法...................................................................................................................... 5

第二章         坐标系、基准和坐标系统........................................................................................................ 9

1               地球的形状.......................................................................................................................... 9

一、                   地球的自然表面............................................................................................................. 9

二、                   地球的质量和重力........................................................................................................ 9

三、                   大地水准面..................................................................................................................... 9

四、                   参考椭球.......................................................................................................................... 9

五、                   投影.................................................................................................................................. 9

2               坐标系统.............................................................................................................................. 9

一、                   坐标系的分类................................................................................................................. 9

二、                   基准................................................................................................................................ 10

三、                   坐标系变换与基准变换............................................................................................. 11

四、                   GPS测量中常用的坐标系统.................................................................................... 16

第三章         GPS静态定位在测量中的应用............................................................................................ 19

1               GPS静态定位在测量中的应用..................................................................................... 19

2               布设GPS基线向量网的工作步骤................................................................................ 19

一、                   测前工作....................................................................................................................... 19

二、                   测量实施....................................................................................................................... 20

三、                   测后工作....................................................................................................................... 21

第四章         技术设计...................................................................................................................................... 23

1               技术设计的作用............................................................................................................... 23

2               技术设计的内容............................................................................................................... 23

第五章         布网方法...................................................................................................................................... 26

1               GPS基线向量网的等级.................................................................................................. 26

2               GPS基线向量网的布网形式......................................................................................... 26

一、                   跟踪站式....................................................................................................................... 27

二、                   会战式............................................................................................................................ 27

三、                   多基准站式................................................................................................................... 28

四、                   同步图形扩展式.......................................................................................................... 28

五、                   单基准站式................................................................................................................... 29

3               采用同步图形扩展的布网形式布设GPS基线向量网时的观测作业方式.......... 29

一、                   点连式............................................................................................................................ 30

二、                   边连式............................................................................................................................ 30

三、                   网连式............................................................................................................................ 31

四、                   混连式............................................................................................................................ 32

4               布设GPS基线向量网时的设计指标........................................................................... 32

一、                   效率指标....................................................................................................................... 32

二、                   可靠性指标................................................................................................................... 33

三、                   精度指标....................................................................................................................... 33

5               GPS网的设计准则........................................................................................................... 33

一、                   出发点............................................................................................................................ 33

二、                   GPS网布网作业准则................................................................................................. 34

第六章         GPS基线解算............................................................................................................................. 36

1               GPS基线解算的基本原理.............................................................................................. 36

一、                   观测值............................................................................................................................ 36

二、                   基线解算(平差)...................................................................................................... 37

2               GPS基线解算的分类...................................................................................................... 38

一、                   单基线解算................................................................................................................... 38

二、                   多基线解....................................................................................................................... 39

3               基线解算阶段的质量控制.............................................................................................. 39

一、                   质量控制指标及其应用............................................................................................. 39

二、                   应用................................................................................................................................ 41

4               影响GPS基线解算结果的几个因素及其应对方法................................................. 42

一、                   影响GPS基线解算结果的几个因素...................................................................... 42

二、                   影响GPS基线解算结果因素的判别及应对措施................................................. 42

5               GPS基线解算的过程...................................................................................................... 48

第七章         GPS基线向量网平差............................................................................................................... 51

1               GPS网平差的分类........................................................................................................... 51

一、                   三维平差和二维平差.................................................................................................. 51

二、                   无约束平差、约束平差和联合平差........................................................................ 52

2               GPS网平差原理............................................................................................................... 52

一、                   三维无约束平差.......................................................................................................... 52

二、                   三维联合平差............................................................................................................... 54

三、                   二维联合平差............................................................................................................... 55

3               GPS网平差的过程........................................................................................................... 55

一、                   提取基线向量,构建GPS基线向量网.................................................................. 55

二、                   三维无约束平差.......................................................................................................... 55

三、                   约束平差/联合平差..................................................................................................... 55

四、                   质量分析与控制.......................................................................................................... 56

4               GPS网平差中起算数据的检验..................................................................................... 56

一、                   方差检验法................................................................................................................... 56

二、                   符合路线法................................................................................................................... 57

三、                   检查点法....................................................................................................................... 57

第八章         GPS高程...................................................................................................................................... 59

1               高程系统............................................................................................................................ 59

一、                   大地高系统................................................................................................................... 59

二、                   正高系统....................................................................................................................... 59

三、                   正常高............................................................................................................................ 59

四、                   高程系统之间的转换关系......................................................................................... 60

2               GPS高程的方法............................................................................................................... 60

一、                   等值线图法................................................................................................................... 60

二、                   地球模型法................................................................................................................... 61

三、                   高程拟合法................................................................................................................... 61

第九章         技术总结...................................................................................................................................... 65

1               技术总结的作用............................................................................................................... 65

2               技术总结的内容............................................................................................................... 65

附录              69

1               RINEX格式...................................................................................................................... 69

2               GPSurvey软件使用....................................................................................................... 90

一、                   GPSurvey软件概述.................................................................................................... 90

二、                   建立项目....................................................................................................................... 95

三、                   数据传输....................................................................................................................... 97

四、                   基线解算.................................................................................. 

五、                   基线向量网平差(TRIMNET PLUS.................................................................. 100

3               词汇表.............................................................................................................................. 115

 

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