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    实用GPS测量数据处理教程.doc

    2013-08-23 17:48:49 来源: 测绘论坛
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      实用GPS测量数据处理教程

    概述              1

    第一章         GPS定位原理概述...................................................................................................................... 1

    1               GPS的组成.......................................................................................................................... 1

    2               GPS信号.............................................................................................................................. 1

    3               SPSPPS........................................................................................................................... 2

    4               GPS定位的常用观测值.................................................................................................... 3

    5               GPS定位的误差源............................................................................................................. 3

    6               GPS定位方法...................................................................................................................... 5

    第二章         坐标系、基准和坐标系统........................................................................................................ 9

    1               地球的形状.......................................................................................................................... 9

    一、                   地球的自然表面............................................................................................................. 9

    二、                   地球的质量和重力........................................................................................................ 9

    三、                   大地水准面..................................................................................................................... 9

    四、                   参考椭球.......................................................................................................................... 9

    五、                   投影.................................................................................................................................. 9

    2               坐标系统.............................................................................................................................. 9

    一、                   坐标系的分类................................................................................................................. 9

    二、                   基准................................................................................................................................ 10

    三、                   坐标系变换与基准变换............................................................................................. 11

    四、                   GPS测量中常用的坐标系统.................................................................................... 16

    第三章         GPS静态定位在测量中的应用............................................................................................ 19

    1               GPS静态定位在测量中的应用..................................................................................... 19

    2               布设GPS基线向量网的工作步骤................................................................................ 19

    一、                   测前工作....................................................................................................................... 19

    二、                   测量实施....................................................................................................................... 20

    三、                   测后工作....................................................................................................................... 21

    第四章         技术设计...................................................................................................................................... 23

    1               技术设计的作用............................................................................................................... 23

    2               技术设计的内容............................................................................................................... 23

    第五章         布网方法...................................................................................................................................... 26

    1               GPS基线向量网的等级.................................................................................................. 26

    2               GPS基线向量网的布网形式......................................................................................... 26

    一、                   跟踪站式....................................................................................................................... 27

    二、                   会战式............................................................................................................................ 27

    三、                   多基准站式................................................................................................................... 28

    四、                   同步图形扩展式.......................................................................................................... 28

    五、                   单基准站式................................................................................................................... 29

    3               采用同步图形扩展的布网形式布设GPS基线向量网时的观测作业方式.......... 29

    一、                   点连式............................................................................................................................ 30

    二、                   边连式............................................................................................................................ 30

    三、                   网连式............................................................................................................................ 31

    四、                   混连式............................................................................................................................ 32

    4               布设GPS基线向量网时的设计指标........................................................................... 32

    一、                   效率指标....................................................................................................................... 32

    二、                   可靠性指标................................................................................................................... 33

    三、                   精度指标....................................................................................................................... 33

    5               GPS网的设计准则........................................................................................................... 33

    一、                   出发点............................................................................................................................ 33

    二、                   GPS网布网作业准则................................................................................................. 34

    第六章         GPS基线解算............................................................................................................................. 36

    1               GPS基线解算的基本原理.............................................................................................. 36

    一、                   观测值............................................................................................................................ 36

    二、                   基线解算(平差)...................................................................................................... 37

    2               GPS基线解算的分类...................................................................................................... 38

    一、                   单基线解算................................................................................................................... 38

    二、                   多基线解....................................................................................................................... 39

    3               基线解算阶段的质量控制.............................................................................................. 39

    一、                   质量控制指标及其应用............................................................................................. 39

    二、                   应用................................................................................................................................ 41

    4               影响GPS基线解算结果的几个因素及其应对方法................................................. 42

    一、                   影响GPS基线解算结果的几个因素...................................................................... 42

    二、                   影响GPS基线解算结果因素的判别及应对措施................................................. 42

    5               GPS基线解算的过程...................................................................................................... 48

    第七章         GPS基线向量网平差............................................................................................................... 51

    1               GPS网平差的分类........................................................................................................... 51

    一、                   三维平差和二维平差.................................................................................................. 51

    二、                   无约束平差、约束平差和联合平差........................................................................ 52

    2               GPS网平差原理............................................................................................................... 52

    一、                   三维无约束平差.......................................................................................................... 52

    二、                   三维联合平差............................................................................................................... 54

    三、                   二维联合平差............................................................................................................... 55

    3               GPS网平差的过程........................................................................................................... 55

    一、                   提取基线向量,构建GPS基线向量网.................................................................. 55

    二、                   三维无约束平差.......................................................................................................... 55

    三、                   约束平差/联合平差..................................................................................................... 55

    四、                   质量分析与控制.......................................................................................................... 56

    4               GPS网平差中起算数据的检验..................................................................................... 56

    一、                   方差检验法................................................................................................................... 56

    二、                   符合路线法................................................................................................................... 57

    三、                   检查点法....................................................................................................................... 57

    第八章         GPS高程...................................................................................................................................... 59

    1               高程系统............................................................................................................................ 59

    一、                   大地高系统................................................................................................................... 59

    二、                   正高系统....................................................................................................................... 59

    三、                   正常高............................................................................................................................ 59

    四、                   高程系统之间的转换关系......................................................................................... 60

    2               GPS高程的方法............................................................................................................... 60

    一、                   等值线图法................................................................................................................... 60

    二、                   地球模型法................................................................................................................... 61

    三、                   高程拟合法................................................................................................................... 61

    第九章         技术总结...................................................................................................................................... 65

    1               技术总结的作用............................................................................................................... 65

    2               技术总结的内容............................................................................................................... 65

    附录              69

    1               RINEX格式...................................................................................................................... 69

    2               GPSurvey软件使用....................................................................................................... 90

    一、                   GPSurvey软件概述.................................................................................................... 90

    二、                   建立项目....................................................................................................................... 95

    三、                   数据传输....................................................................................................................... 97

    四、                   基线解算.................................................................................. 

    五、                   基线向量网平差(TRIMNET PLUS.................................................................. 100

    3               词汇表.............................................................................................................................. 115

     

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